Genres of Journalism:
Advocacy journalism refers to a form of journalism that is aimed at promoting particular causes, organizations and/or viewpoints. While advocacy journalism is practiced both by small and large news organizations, it is most often practiced by alternative media and local community media.
Ambush journalism refers to the journalistic practice of confronting potential news subjects without any prior warning. It is a controversial journalistic practice which some observers consider unethical and other observers believe provide for more truthful responses on the part of news subjects.
Backpack journalism refers to one aspect of the changing working conditions of journalists whereby they have to assume multiple, professional responsibilities simultaneously. Backpack journalists commonly serve simultaneously as reporters, photographers, videographers, editors, and producers of a given story.
Bandwagon journalism refers to the journalistic practice of following the storylines of other journalists instead of formulating one's own storylines. While bandwagon journalism can refer to any topical area of journalism, it is most often used to describe journalists' behavior during political election campaigns.
Checkbook journalism refers to the journalistic practice of paying news subjects for the right to publish their stories instead of simply investigating the stories and publishing them with or without the news subjects' consent. The term is often used to suggest that the journalist acted in an unethical manner.
Churnalism refers to the journalistic practice of making use of prepackaged material, such as in the form of press releases and wire stories, to produce one's own stories. It has become an increasingly common journalistic practice across media due to financial pressures on the part of news organizations.
Citizen journalism refers to instances where ordinary citizens participate in the journalistic process from the initial gathering of information through to the final production and dissemination of stories. Typical venues for citizen journalism include personal blogs as well as social media and networking sites.
Collaborative journalism refers to instances where multiple journalists, sometimes aided by one or more citizen journalists, collaborate on the production and dissemination of stories. Collaborative news projects are commonly produced by news organizations of both local, national, and international reach.
Comics journalism refers to a form of journalism that applies the principles and practices of fictional comics to cover news stories as well as other non-fiction issues and events. Typically, comics journalists will use compelling narratives and combine words and drawn images to report stories.
Computational journalism refers to a form of journalism that uses statistical procedures and other types of computation to gather, produce, and disseminate news and other non-fiction stories. It is typically practiced in collaboration between computer programmers, journalists, and data visualization experts.
Computer-assisted journalism refers to all the different ways in which computers are used in the journalistic process, from the gathering of information, through the production and dissemination of stories, to the evaluation of performance. It is practiced by all contemporary news organizations.
Data journalism refers to a form of journalism that makes significant use of numerical data in the journalistic process. Typically, data journalists will gather information in the form of numerical data, and subsequently make these data a central part of the resulting stories and visual aids.
Data-driven journalism refers to the increasing use of large data sets for journalistic purposes. Data-driven journalists typically analyze large-scale, publicly available data sets, publicize the results of their investigations, and then invite interested audience members to continue their analyses on their own.
Embedded journalism refers to the journalistic practice of assigning journalists to active, military units during times of war and other forms of armed conflict. Ideally, embedded journalists are supposed to serve as disinterested reporters of the conflict and not take the side of any of the conflicting parties.
Enterprise journalism refers to an ideal form of journalism whereby journalists, independently and without any outside interference, pursue their own stories. It is the exact opposite of churnalism in which journalists rely on prepackaged material contained in press release and wire stories.
Gonzo journalism refers to a highly subjective form of journalism that makes no pretense of aspiring to detached objectivity. It typically relies on first-person narratives, in which the journalist is a central part of the story, and compelling language and imagery to appeal to audiences.
Gotcha journalism refers to instances where journalists, through the use of aggressive interviewing techniques, try to compel news subjects to make self-damaging statements that place them in a wholly unfavorable light. It is typically used to describe journalists' behavior during political election campaigns.
Human interest journalism refers to news stories and other types of non-fiction stories whose primary goal is to appeal to audiences at an emotional level. Typically, human interest stories will focus on individual triumphs and tragedies and make use of highly emotive language and imagery.
Immersion journalism refers to a form of journalism whereby the journalist is fully immersed in a given situation and with the people involved so as to be able to provide a fuller depiction of it. The resulting stories tend to focus on the journalist's experiences from a deeply personal perspective.
Innovation journalism refers to the journalistic practice of gathering information about and reporting on scientific and other forms of technical innovation. Typically, innovation journalists see themselves as interested participants, responsible for helping particular innovations develop and spread through society.
Interactive journalism refers to a collaborative form of journalism that allows audiences to interact with the journalist during the production of particular stories. It conceives of journalism as a continuous conversation between journalists and citizens rather than as static form of one-way dissemination.
Investigative journalism refers to a form of journalism in which journalists delve deeply into a given topic, often related to political or corporate wrongdoing, for an extended period of time. Investigative journalists often make use of primary sources of information such as original interviews and documents.
Literary journalism refers to a form of journalism that uses various literary styles and techniques to make the resulting news and other non-fiction stories as compelling to audiences as possible. Common ingredients in such literary journalism stories include well-developed settings, plots, and characters.
Mobile journalism refers to a particular form of investigative journalism in which journalists report from the field using portable electronic devices, such as smart phones, laptops, and digital cameras and camcorders, with wireless connectivity. Mobile journalists often report from their own communities.
Muckraking Journalism refers to a group of reform-minded journalists who at the turn of the century used various investigative journalism techniques to expose government and corporate wrongdoing. Much of the resulting news and other non-fiction stories were published in popular magazines and books.
Narrative journalism refers to a form of journalism that uses various fictional story-telling techniques to make news stories and other types of non-fiction stories as compelling to audiences as possible. It is very different in format from straight news stories, with their inverted pyramid style of reporting.
New journalism refers to a group of journalists who in the 1960s and 1970s revolted against the prevailing, journalistic norm of objectivity by experimenting with new, more subjective forms of expression. Like muckraking before it, most new journalism appeared in popular magazines and books.
Not-for-profit journalism refers to forms of journalism that are funded by and produced on behalf of non-profit organizations rather than for-profit corporations. With the explicit goal of serving the greater public good, such not-for-profit journalism is often funded by entities such as foundations and think tanks.
Open source journalism refers to a form of journalism whereby journalists widen their net of potential news sources beyond elite actors, notably governmental officials and corporate officers, to also include ordinary citizens. Open source journalists often access online communities to solicit citizen input.
Peace journalism refers to a form of journalism that is aimed at achieving peaceful resolutions to conflicts rather than the violent escalation thereof. Peace journalists often focus more attention on what the conflicting parties share in common than on what separates them from one another.
Positive journalism refers to a form of journalism that explicitly seeks to focus attention on the positive aspects of given stories. To that end, positive journalists actively solicit sources of information that can comment on such positive aspects and include actual quotes from these sources in their stories.
Preventive journalism refers to a form of journalism that is aimed at reporting on issues at such an early stage that decision-makers can prevent them from becoming intractable problems. Preventive journalists thus seek to fully understand and describe the underlying causes of given issues.
Public journalism refers to a form of journalism that aims to increase civic commitment to and citizen participation in democratic processes. To that end, public journalism commonly focuses attention on issues of particular concern to ordinary citizens and outline what citizens can do to address those issues.
Scientific journalism refers to a form of journalism in which journalists publish the raw material upon which their stories are based alongside the actual stories themselves. The goal is to increase journalistic transparency and to allow audiences to engage in their own analyses of the raw material supplied.
Sensational journalism refers to a form of journalism that is explicitly aimed at increasing audience numbers and ratings at all costs. Sensational journalists often focus attention on issues and events that appeal to the lowest common denominator and do so in a highly exaggerated and emotional manner.
Service journalism refers to all the different types of journalistic stories and features that appeal to audiences as consumers rather than as citizens. Common service journalism stories and features include financial planning tips, real estate listings, television and movie schedules, and weather forecasts.
Solutions journalism refers to a form of journalism that is aimed at focusing attention on solutions to problems rather than merely on the existence of those problems. Solutions journalists often report on what particular communities have done to solve problems and what others can learn from those efforts.
Tabloid journalism refers to a dramatic and sensationalized form of journalism that often focuses on attention-grabbing topics such as crime, celebrities, and politicians. It uses eye-catching and bold headlines, colorful narratives and visuals, and simple and straightforward grammar and vocabulary.
Watchdog journalism refers to a particular type of investigative journalism that is concerned with keeping citizens informed about the workings of government institutions and actors. Watchdog journalists commonly interview public officials, fact-check their statements, and scrutinize documents.
Wiki journalism refers to news and other kinds of non-fiction stories produced through the use of particular web applications knowns as wikis. This collaborative technology allows journalists, often in collaboration with citizen journalists, to continuously modify, add, and delete content to stories.