A hoax is a story that is intentionally written with false information but passed to be the truth. Hoaxes can include various rumors or urban legends. If a journalist deliberately published a story that was untruthful under the guise of being the truth is not only a hoax, but unethical when done outside of a joking manner. Throughout history, there have been a wide range of notable hoaxes everywhere from government issues to complete conspiracy theories.
Hoaxes are drastically different from pranks, fiction, and magic tricks. They are usually intended to bring bad reputations upon the victims, or as practical joke. There is a fine line between hoaxes and actual cases of fraud. Journalists should be educated on this line and know the differences between all instances of how to check their data and stay away from fabrications.
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